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Management Decisions

At first glance, it appears to be a routine business chore. You have a job to fill, so you must interview the applicants and select the most promising one. In truth, interviewing job candidates today is anything but routine.

One of the toughest issues to resolve with new hires is measuring the applicant's technical skills. How can you tell if a person can lay bricks up to your standards before you hire them? Chances are that you've developed your own methods for measuring hard skills in new applicants. Still, it's important to remember, there are other issues that may be even more important to a contractor.

"There has never been a time when pre-employment interviewing skills have been more important," says Therese A. Hoehne, Director of Human Resources, Aurora University, Aurora, Ill. She cautions, "You must always keep in mind that there are many complex laws that govern the interviewing/hiring process. Today's legal constraints have made a tough job more complex and more risky than ever."

Fortunately, there are simple techniques that can help you negotiate that difficult path. Masonry asked several experts to give us their best advice. Here's what they told us:

"Most interviewers talk too much," says Emory Mulling, chairman of The Mulling Companies, Atlanta, Ga., and author of "The Mulling Factor: Get Your Life Back by Taking Control of Your Career." "The interviewer's role is to get information from the candidate. Too often, interviewers spend too much time talking about the job and themselves and not enough time asking relevant questions of the candidate."

Human resources professionals agree that talking too much during an interview is a common mistake. Remember, your job during a pre-employment interview is to obtain as much meaningful information from the potential employee as possible. You can't listen when you're talking.

While complete honesty on a job application may not be the norm today, most experts advise employers to question the obvious. Time gaps between jobs often signals the need for a closer look at an applicant's employment history.

"Look for 'short-timeritis' — the person who seems to switch jobs every 12 months," says Hoehne. "If the applicant is new to the job market and has already had two or three jobs, this may or may not be a warning sign. However, if the applicant has 10 year's experience and 10 jobs, you will want to discuss the reasons. This could indicate a 'job-hopper' at best and a serious problem employee at worst."

Be sure to take a careful look at recommendations from former employers. There are many reasons for an employer to provide favorable recommendations for a former employee; not all of them are as sincere as they might appear.

Like any conversation, a pre-employment interview can stray far off its proper path if not carefully controlled.

"If I had a friend conducting an interview, I would advise them to ask only those job-related questions that they need to ask to make a lawful hiring decision," says Labor Attorney John C. Romeo, Philadelphia, Penn. "I would advise them to pay close attention to the direction the conversation takes during the interview. An interview can easily turn into a conversation about family, religion or national origin," he says. "If the interviewer sees the conversation going in this direction, they should make a concerted effort to stop and switch gears — get the conversation onto a proper and legal topic."

You must not ask different questions of males and females; to do so is to risk violation of discrimination laws. "I usually create a list of questions to ask all candidates before the interview process starts," says Hoehne. "I then put those questions on a sheet of paper with space between them to take notes."

James Walsh, author of "Rightful Termination: Defensive Strategies for Hiring and Firing in the Lawsuit-happy 90's," also advises starting with what hiring experts call structured questions. "Ask them of every candidate and base your comparisons on their answers." He suggests using a simple worksheet to do this, checking off each applicant's strengths against the job skills required for the position.

Bob Dickson, former Director of Labor Relations & Personnel, Merck & Co., West Point, Penn., also believes in using a carefully structured set of questions prepared in advance of the interview. "I recommend that you summarize what you have learned immediately after the interview. One way to do this is to list relevant answers and information next to each question on your list."

Mulling cautions interviewers not to give away too many details of what they are looking for in a candidate. "If you do that," he says, "the candidate will mold his or her answers to what the interviewer wants to hear. That can result in the candidate being hired, qualified or not."

"Some interviewers take a résumé point by point and discuss only the candidate's hard skills," says Mulling. "Technical skills and experience are not always the best indicators of success on the job. The candidate must also be a good fit for the boss and the work environment. Two candidates can be equally qualified in technical skills, but vastly different in terms of personality and work-style preferences.

"Necessary technical skills can be taught to the right applicant," says Mulling, "but you can't teach a person how to be friendly or adaptable."

"Ask questions about the candidate's preferred management style to determine if he or she will fit with your management style," says Mulling. "For example, a candidate who likes to work independently won't fit with a boss who's a picky micro-manager."

You should keep in mind that you're looking for a person who will fit in comfortably with the culture in your organization.

"This is especially important if you are hiring anyone with supervisory responsibility. Applicants for these jobs usually expect to be interviewed more than once," says Walsh. "It can pay off with other people in your organization, too. The second interview gives both the applicant and the interviewer every opportunity to test compatibility."

Dickson also suggests that more than one person do the interviewing. "If there is someone else in your organization that can help with the interviewing," he says, "candidates should be interviewed by two people. This will greatly improve your chances of making the right choice."

"Even after asking the right questions, some interviewers make the wrong choice because they didn't listen carefully to the answers," says Mulling. "Don't kid yourself into thinking you can overcome potential conflicts and make someone fit in just because you like the way they look or because their masonry skills are a perfect match for the job."

Places You Don't Want to Go

In the early 1990s, courts outlawed the use of questions where the answers might be used to discriminate against applicants in the hiring process. Now, an interviewer who asks them may face a discrimination lawsuit. "The Americans With Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 make hiring a potential nightmare," says Walsh.

It's in an interviewer's best interest to know what questions may lead to litigation. Interviewers must not ask any questions concerning protected classes, including race, sex, age, national origin, religion or disabilities. In general, the law also prohibits questions about workers' compensation or health history.

You should also avoid questions about pregnancy. "Except in limited circumstances (e.g., health reasons), employers cannot make hiring decisions based on an applicant's pregnancy," says Romeo. "If an interviewer were to ask a female applicant whether or not she was — or planned to be — pregnant, the employer is setting him or herself up for a discrimination claim.

"Watch out for questions that seem harmless but lead to information that could be used to discriminate against the applicant," Romeo adds. "For example, asking an applicant what year he or she graduated from high school can give rise to an age discrimination claim since the applicant could allege that the employer used the information to figure out the applicant's age. A better question is, simply, 'Did you graduate from high school?'"

Romeo offers these examples of questions that you should not ask during an interview:

  • Are you planning to have a family?
  • Do you have children?
  • Have you ever been injured on the job?
  • What year were you born?
  • Do you have a disability?
In "Rightful Termination," Walsh cautions that this list of pitfalls is likely to grow over the years as the courts seek to gauge the meaning of vaguely worded discrimination laws.

"I suggest that interviewers think of it this way," says Romeo. "Don't ask a question if you cannot lawfully base a hiring decision on the answer. You cannot discriminate based on information you do not have. So, if you don't need to know, don't ask."

"The employer's vulnerability in a wrongful discharge suit begins in the early stages of the relationship," says Walsh. "The courts sometimes find a contractual relationship in seemingly harmless statements about job security or advancement opportunities. Even an oral promise of a wage review after a specified length of time should be avoided; the courts may find a contract of employment for that length of time in any such promise."

A 1971 Supreme Court decision, Griggs v. Duke Power, provided a major precedent in pre-employment testing. In that case, an applicant for a janitorial job was required to take an intelligence test and show a high school diploma.

When the company did not hire him, the applicant sued and took his case all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. The court ruled that a high school diploma was irrelevant to the janitorial position in question. The court also ruled that pre-employment testing must measure only skills directly related to performance on the job being sought.

While pre-employment tests are still widely used, most have been carefully designed to comply with the 1971 Supreme Court decision.

You should never take pre-employment interviewing lightly. "Interviewing is perhaps the most critical part of the employment process," Dickson says. "It's a responsibility that you will want to prepare for carefully. The information you obtain from the candidates will become the most important factor in your final decision."

William J. Lynott, a former management consultant and corporate executive, writes on human interest, business and financial topics. His latest book, "Money: How to Make the Most of What You've Got," is available now. You can reach Bill at wlynott@cs.com or through his web site: www.blynott.com.



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